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This article examines the issues regarding the integration of Liberian refugees upon repatriation after their protracted exile in Ghana by means of in-depth case studies. Despite having obtained the same durable solution, the results of their return were mixed. Upon their arrival in Liberia, some settled in with relatively little stress whilst others confronted a series of daunting hardships. The process of integration experienced by these returnees, including the construction of new livelihoods, was largely influenced by their resource conditions in Liberia. In particular, their level of access to influential personal contacts in Liberia played a principal role in determining the degree of their integration. The article highlights the highly selective nature of repatriation and integration, which is largely contingent upon the extent and quality of returnees’ individual resource networks in the country of origin.

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Journal article


Oxford University Press

Publication Date



26 (2)


265 - 282