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  • Commentary: The European Union and global migration governance

    3 September 2014

    Book description: The third edition of this major work provides a systematic, comparative assessment of the efforts of a selection of major countries, including the U.S., to deal with immigration and immigrant issues— paying particular attention to the ever-widening gap between their migration policy goals and outcomes. Retaining its comprehensive coverage of nations built by immigrants and those with a more recent history of immigration, the new edition pays particular attention to the tensions created by post-colonial immigration, and explores how countries have attempted to control the entry and employment of legal and illegal Third World immigrants, how they cope with the social and economic integration of these new waves of immigrants, and how they deal with forced migration.

  • Militaries and humanitarian innovation: opportunities and risks

    9 February 2016

    In this working paper, we call for greater recognition and new thinking about military actors as a serious subject of study within humanitarian innovation discourse. In so doing, we seek to contribute to the Humanitarian Innovation Project’s (HIP) broader interdisciplinary agenda of rethinking the frontiers of the humanitarian system, while also encouraging the further conceptual development of a nascent debate around military actors and humanitarian innovation. This paper presents preliminary findings to be developed further through subsequent research and consultative feedback. We draw from case studies to illustrate the opportunities, risks and challenges of innovation diffusion and exchange between militaries and humanitarians, but these are not meant to comprise a comprehensive ‘inventory’ of all available data. It is, rather, our aim to generate interest in further research on the topic. Our focus is on two leading models of military innovation management, the US and UK military forces.

  • Forgotten people: former Liberian refugees in Ghana

    4 October 2016

    More than three years after the cessation of refugee status for Liberian refugees, the viability of the ECOWAS integration scheme implemented as a solution for those Liberians who continued to stay in Ghana is seen to be limited.

  • Book Review: South–South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development: Views from the Caribbean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    4 October 2016

    Book: South–South Educational Migration, Humanitarianism and Development: Views from the Caribbean, North Africa, and the Middle East, by E. Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Routledge (Oxford), 2015. South–South cooperation – collaboration among states and non-state actors in the global South in economic, political, cultural, and technical domains – is gaining growing attention from states, policy-makers, and academics. A recent Human Development Report titled The Rise of the South notes that: ‘The South has risen at an unprecedented speed and scale…countries of the South are collectively bolstering world economic growth, lifting other developing economies, reducing poverty and increasing wealth on a grand scale’ (2013, p.1). While much of the discussion on South–South collaboration focuses on economic and trade benefits stemming from such partnerships, cooperation among Southern actors can also create important opportunities for people to build human capital, especially through the provision of education (Bakewell, 2009, p.55). However, the literature on South–South cooperation around education remains limited, and in particular few studies have explored South–South cooperation in the context of refugees' education. Fiddian-Qasmiyeh's book is a major contribution that seeks to address this gap.

  • The Syrian Humanitarian Disaster: Understanding Perceptions and Aspirations in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey

    4 October 2016

    Syria can be described as both a refuge state and a refugee producing nation. This modern historical fact has had a profound influence on the way that neighbouring states and their people have responded and reacted to the current humanitarian crisis. The international humanitarian aid regime in its 21st century incarnation has again been caught out, unprepared and curiously unresponsive to the perceptions and aspirations of both those seeking refuge and the host communities providing it. This paper sets out to explore the disparity in perceptions and aspirations among forced migrants, members of hosting communities and humanitarian aid practitioners and policymakers. It is based on fieldwork in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan between September 2014 and September 2015.

  • Research in Brief: Decriminalising ‘Humanitarian Smuggling’

    9 March 2017

    This research brief summarises the legal and policy findings from the RSC Working Paper no. 119, "The ‘humanitarian smuggling’ of refugees: criminal offence or moral obligation?" It outlines the concept of ‘humanitarian smuggling’, and then critiques smuggling prohibitions at the international and the EU levels. It argues that these prohibitions are overbroad and vague, failing to meet basic requirements of the rule of law. Moreover, they criminalise acts that fall outside the law’s stated purpose, acts that are often ethically defensible. Finally, the brief analyses existing proposals to improve the framework governing smuggling and provides additional recommendations to decriminalise ‘humanitarian smugglers’.

  • The ‘humanitarian smuggling’ of refugees: criminal offence or moral obligation?

    20 October 2016

    At a time when it is nearly impossible for refugees to reach the European Union through safe and legal channels, and human smugglers are providing one of the only means for refugees to flee persecution, should human smugglers be brought to justice, or are they bringing about justice? This research is an inquiry into the range of morally permissible actions that might be considered 'humanitarian smuggling' - those acts of the facilitation of irregular entry that are morally blameless, if not praiseworthy or even obligatory, and should not be criminalised. Turning first to legal doctrine, I argue that smuggling prohibitions at both the international and European levels are vague and overbroad, failing to enable subjects of the law to orientate their behaviour accordingly and risking the suppression of humanitarian acts. Second, drawing upon practical ethics as well as historical and contemporary examples, I begin to map the complex moral terrain of the range of ethically defensible acts of smuggling that risk criminalisation under current smuggling prohibitions. Finally, I analyse several recommendations to shrink the distance between what is legal and what is moral, arguing that at a minimum, smuggling prohibitions must be more narrowly drafted to decriminalise 'humanitarian smugglers'. I ultimately propose that the true wrongs the human smugglers worthy of criminalisation commit may indeed be more aptly punished under other offences in criminal law.

  • Multinational oil exploitation and social investment: mobile pastoralists in the Sultanate of Oman

    17 December 2013

    Book description: A scholarly volume devoted to an understanding of contemporary nomadic and pastoral societies in the Middle East and North Africa. This volume recognizes the variable mobile quality of the ways of life of these societies which persist in accommodating the ‘nation-state’ of the 20th and 21st century but remain firmly transnational and highly adaptive. Composed of four sections around the theme of contestation it includes examinations of contested authority and power, space and social transformation, development and economic transformation, and cultures and engendered spaces.

  • Building schools for mobile people: the Harasiis in the Sultanate of Oman

    17 December 2013

    Book description: Educational provision for nomadic peoples is a highly complex, as well as controversial and emotive, issue. For centuries, nomadic peoples educated their children by passing on from generation to generation the socio-cultural and economic knowledge required to pursue their traditional occupations. But over the last few decades, nomadic peoples have had to contend with rapid changes to their ways of life, often as a consequence of global patterns of development that are highly unsympathetic to spatially mobile groups. The need to provide modern education for nomadic groups is evident and urgent to all those concerned with achieving Education For All; yet how they can be included is highly controversial. This volume provides a series of international case studies, prefaced by a comprehensive literature review and concluding with an end note drawing themes together, that sets out key issues in relation to educational services for nomadic groups around the world.