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  • Mobile Pastoralists: Development Planning and Social Change in Oman

    12 December 2013

    Based on more than ten years of study among the Harasiis, a Middle Eastern tribe living in the Sultanate of Oman, Mobile Pastoralists is a powerful statement on the importance of grassroots, people-based development and on the inadequacy of conventional responses for such a community by the international aid bureaucracy. Dawn Chatty's work is the product of years of research among the Harasiis, during which she headed an international development project aiming to provide basic social services to the tribe without disturbing their traditional nomadic pastoral way of life. Mobile Pastoralists provides readers with a detailed description of the conception, drafting, implementation, and completion of Chatty's aid project. The book also includes nuanced case studies of individual Harasiis men and women, showing how development efforts and the complex forces of modernization have affected members on a personal level. Supplemented by a group of photographs of the tribe and their environment, along with seven detailed regional maps, Mobile Pastoralists is a study with valuable applications for anthropology, cultural geography, development planning, and Middle Eastern affairs.

  • Organizing Women: Informal and Formal Women's Groups in the Middle East

    12 December 2013

    With the creation of the modern nation-state in the Middle East and North Africa, women have been and continue to be manipulated to represent a cultural ideal of perfect womanhood. This is often greatly at odds with the realities of women's lives and aspirations. However, individual women, through careful manipulation of gender relations, often succeed in casting aside the culturally accepted bonds which diminish their lives.Even so, women in groups are deemed unacceptable unless they conform to state mandates. In many countries in the Middle East, women are only legally permitted to form groups which are charitable organizations concerned with the welfare of the disabled or the handicapped. Clearly women in groups are perceived as a threat by the state.This challenging book examines the nature of the relationship between both women and the state and men and the state. It presents a balanced mix of theoretical and empirical research which analyzes both the formal and informal ways in which women have organized themselves, and been organized, in Arab society.

  • Integrating participation into research and consultancy: a conservation example from Arabia

    12 December 2013

    Conservation projects in the Middle East have recently focused on reintroducing extinct mammals into their former grazing lands. The indigenous human populations in these areas—mainly nomadic pastoralists—have been, until very recently, excluded from any part of the information gathering, planning, implementation and management of such schemes. This intellectual and physical exclusion has resulted in hostility, distrust and occasionally sabotage. To succeed, many conservation efforts have had to rethink and redesign their activity. The key concept underlying this restructuring is ‘participation’. The term, however, means many things to the various actors involved in conservation research and consultancy and care must be taken to identify its uses and meanings. Looking at recent Syrian government efforts to reintroduce the Arabian oryx into the desert as an example, I examine the major pseudo-scientific assumptions which have underpinned most projects and consultancies in the semi-arid lands of Syria. These positions, I show, have led to an untenable ‘no-win’ situation for the nomadic pastoralists. Finally I examine the way in which an effort to introduce the concept of participation through a series of consultancies has resulted in some encouraging collaboration between the indigenous human population, the conservation experts, the local government technocrats and higher authorities.

  • Harasiis marriage, divorce and companionship (In: Everyday Life in the Muslim Middle East)

    12 December 2013

    Focusing on the experiences of ordinary men, women, and children from across the Middle East, from Iran and Afghanistan in the east to Morocco in the west, the 35 stories, poems, and essays collected in this anthology vividly convey an intimate sense of life in the Middle East today. Newly revised and updated to reflect recent changes in Middle East politics and society, this anthology will engage students and scholars of this vast and complex region. Contributors include Lila Abu-Lughod, Jon W. Anderson, Walter Armbrust, Bishara Bahbah, Brian Barber, Anne H. Betteridge, Annabelle Boucher, Donna Lee Bowen, Steven C. Caton, Dawn Chatty, Driss Chraibi, Susan Shaefer Davis, Kevin Dwyer, Evelyn A. Early, Christine Eickelman, Dale Eickelman, Elizabeth Fernea, Angel Foster, Erika Friedl, Steve Howard, Michael E. Jansen, Margaret Mills, Ziba Mir-Hosseini, Emily Nasrallah, Kristina Nelson, Susan Ossman, Tayib Salih, Diane Singerman, Susan Slyomovics, Jenny White, and Quintan Wiktorowicz.

  • Introduction: conservation and mobile peoples (In: Conservation and Mobile Indigenous Peoples: Displacement, Forced Settlement, and Sustainable Development)

    12 December 2013

    The close of the twentieth century has witnessed an upsurge in international concern about people's impact on the natural environment. As pressure on natural resources has intensified, the conventional means of protecting habitat and preventing species extinctions, through the establishment of 'protected areas', has increasingly come into question. Conventional conservation approaches have been accused of ignoring the wider forces causing environmental damage and, even, of being part of the same mind-set, which imposes land use categories from the 'top-down', classifying lands as protected areas or zones. This, say the critics, has only legitimized and encouraged unsustainable land use outside protected areas, placing further pressure on natural resources and the beleaguered protected areas them-selves. Some have, thus, demanded broader changes in national and global economies and focused attention on the underlying causes of environmental destruction - social injustice, the lack of secure land tenure, the enclosure of the commons, consumerism, the rise of corporations, global trade, and government collusion or indifference (WRM 1990; IUCN 1991; Colchester and Lohmann 1993; Ecologist 1993; Verolme and Moussa 1999; Barraclough and Ghimire 2000; Wood et al. 2000).

  • Solidarity at work? The prevalence of emergency-driven solidarity in the administrative governance of the Common European Asylum System

    18 December 2017

    Policymakers conceptualize the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) as a ‘common area of protection and solidarity’. And yet, the absence of solidarity and fair-sharing in the administrative governance of the policy is glaringly salient. Against this backdrop, this article explores Article 80 TFEU, establishing the principle of ‘solidarity and fair-sharing of responsibility’. This analysis reveals it to be a principle that is structural to the EU asylum policy, dictates a certain ‘quality’ in the co-operation of the different actors, and affects the goal of the policy. To do this, after outlining the initial implementation design of the asylum policy, I examine ‘shifts’ in its administration modes, focusing on developments in responsibility-assignation, practical cooperation and EU funding. The analysis covers developments prompted by the 2015 ‘refugee crisis’, such as the emergency intra-EU relocation schemes, the emergence of new funding lines and the enhancement in the operational role of EU agencies. This article argues that, despite the rhetoric surrounding the solidarity principle, rather than being structurally embedded in the system’s administration modes, it remains emergency-driven. In this sense, the implementation design fails both to attain ‘fair sharing’, as well as to respond to what are essentially structural, rather than exceptional needs.