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  • Refugee Policy in Sudan 1967–1984

    13 August 2014

    Based on the work of Ahmed Karadawi, Refugee Policy in Sudan discusses Sudanese government policy towards the refugee flows from Ethiopia into the Eastern Region of Sudan in theperiod 1967 to 1984, arguing that there were two underlying assumptions behind successive governments' policies: that refugees were considered a security threat and a socio-economic burden. In response,the policies incorporated the Organization of African Unity norms, which offered a platform to depoliticise the refugees, equally with the international conventions relating to refugees, which assured the externalization of responsibility and access to aid. This prescription, however, ignored the dynamism of the conflict that continued to generate refugees - and, as numbers accumulated in Sudan, the international aid regime did not act as a willing partner of the government. The consequences of a sizeable refugee population revealed a serious conflict of priorities, not only within the Sudanese government of the day, but also between the government and aid donors - thus, the objectives of the government policy were seriously undermined.

  • Engendering Forced Migration: Theory and Practice

    13 August 2014

    At the turn of the new millenium, war, political oppression, desperate poverty, environmental degradation and disasters, and economic underdevelopment are sharply increasing the ranks of the world's twenty million forced migrants. In this volume, eighteen scholars provide a wide-ranging, interdisciplinary look beyond the statistics at the experiences of the women, men, girls, and boys who comprise this global flow, and at the highly gendered forces that frame and affect them. In theorizing gender and forced migration, these authors present a set of descriptively rich, gendered case studies drawn from around the world on topics ranging from international human rights, to the culture of aid, to the complex ways in which women and men envision displacement and resettlement.

  • Understanding Impoverishment: The Consequences of Development-Induced Displacement

    13 August 2014

    Infrastructure development projects are set to continue into the next century as developing country governments seek to manage population growth, urbanization and industrialization. The contributions in this volume raise many questions about 'development' and 'progress' in the late twentieth century. What is revealed are the enormous problems and disastrous affects which continue to accompany displacement operations in many countries, which raise the ever more urgent question of whether the benefits of infrastructure development justify or outweigh the pain of the radical disruption of peoples lives, exacerbated by the fact that, with some notable exceptions, there has been a lack of official recognition on the part of governments and international agencies that development-induced displacement is a problem at all. This important volume addresses the issues and shows just how serious the situation is.

  • Asylum: principled hypocrisy

    27 February 2014

    In January 2014, The Guardian newspaper reported that UK Border Agency (UKBA) staff received financial rewards for winning appeals against asylum seekers challenging negative decisions. This generated public controversy, because it suggested that the Home Office had a systematic bias against individuals being granted refugee status. No one who has followed asylum’s travails in western states could have been surprised. Academics have long described a ‘culture of disbelief’ pervading the UK government’s asylum decision-making processes, in which asylum claims are met with incredulity and cynicism. This culture seems merely an extension of the battery of measures and mechanisms – including visa regimes, carrier sanctions, and interdiction – that western states have put in place over the last three decades to stop forced migrants from places like Bosnia, Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria arriving to access asylum. If the UKBA’s offer was remarkable, it was only as the reductio ad absurdum of states’ current restrictive responses.

  • Immigration, Social Cohesion and Social Capital: What are the Links?

    12 February 2014

    This study explores the interaction between migrants’ social relationships in their community (their social capital) and the development of a stable and integrated society (social cohesion) at the local level. The concept of social capital – how individuals and groups invest in social relationships and share resources – resonates with current concerns about how different communities, notably minority ethnic groups, relate to their wider social world.

  • Still Surviving and Now Settling: Refugees, Asylum Seekers and a Renewed Role for Housing Associations

    12 February 2014

    Aims: To provide an analysis of the role and potential for housing associations to deliver housing and support services for refugees and asylum seekers by examining current practice and future prospects.

  • Land, Housing and the Reconstruction of the Built Environment

    12 February 2014

    Images of warn-torn societies, and of the disruption and devastation that inevitably result, are a regular feature of today's media. How can such societies, devastated by war, be successfully rehabilitated? What are the challenges of reconstruction and development? After the Conflict brings together a team of leading researchers and professionals with wide involvement in post-conflict scenarios -- including Afghanistan, Rwanda, Kosovo, Somalia and Indonesia -- to address these issues. Drawing upon their extensive experience, they set out the requirements they have found to be necessary to successful long-term reconstruction. This unique work draws together for the first time in a single volume the wide range of specialist knowledge necessary to this major international concern and presents vital new insights essential to successful long-term reconstruction and development of countries in the aftermath of war.

  • Returning to Yerussalem: Exile, Return and Oral History

    12 February 2014

    Although migration has attracted substantial historical investigation, contemporary historians have neglected the more specific study of refugees and forced migrants despite the global saliency of the phenomena and the multidisciplinary nature of the subject matter. Yet a historical perspective implicitly informs much of our understanding of the way political and social change, often over protracted periods, create the 'root causes' of persecution, violence and the humanitarian crises of refugee exodus. Similarly, development-induced, as well as war-generated, forced displacement irrevocably changes people's social world and again a historical perspective should enhance our insights into these processes. But it has usually been left to non-historians to make these connections, which regrettably leaves the history tangential to the main discourse. Gadi BenEzer's exploration of The Ethiopian Jewish Exodus: Narratives of the Migration Journey to Israel 1977-1985, the ninth volume in Routledge's Studies in Memory and Narrative series, follows this tradition...Reviewing the book provides the opportunity to place a critique within the wider frame which seeks to show how historical research, particularly oral history, might better contribute to the study of displacement and forced migration in general, and to refugee studies more specifically. The objective here is to stimulate a closer engagement by historians with this dynamic and perplexing field of academic investigation. In order to make these connections it is necessary to sketch the contours of the development of the 'refugee regime' on the one hand, and then the academic discourse which seeks to understand and explain the phenomenon on the other. Then the review returns to Gadi BenEzer's book in to explore its significance.

  • Policies and labels for negotiating rights protection for the environmentally displaced in Ghana: the Dagara farmer in perspective

    23 January 2018

    This paper discusses the issue of rights within the context of contemporary policies and the extent to which they address the challenges confronting environmentally displaced people in Ghana. It also explores the role of labels in the drive toward affording appropriate rights protection for the environmentally displaced. The discussions are an offshoot from two extant studies conducted through interviews and focus group sessions. The objective of the first study was to assess the level of preparedness of government to offer appropriate rights protection to environmentally displaced persons. The second study investigated how migrants, especially those affected by changing environmental condition are able to gain access and negotiate their rights in all the different places they go to. From the studies, it was found that there are no clear policies in Ghana meant to afford rights protection to environmentally displaced people and that the rights of such migrants keep shifting with both time and location. People migrating from areas of environmental scarcity lack the capacity to negotiate for ‘better’ rights due to weak leadership and the fear of losing courtesies extended to them by the host communities. It concludes that there are ample opportunities within the policy and social environments for supporting and promoting appropriate rights protection for environmentally displaced people. It recommends a shift in the national policy drive toward a rights-based protection with clear blue prints for targeting and addressing the needs of environmentally displaced in Ghana.