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  • Gendering spaces and places for forcibly displaced women and children

    12 December 2013

    An estimated 35 million people worldwide are displaced by conflict, and most of them are women and children. During their time away from their homes and communities, these women and their children are subjected to a horrifying array of misfortune, including privations of every kind, sexual assaults, disease, imprisonment, unwanted pregnancies, severe psychological trauma, and, upon return or resettlement, social disapproval and isolation. Written by the world’s leading scholars and practitioners, this unique collection brings these problems - and potential solutions - into sharp focus. Based on extensive field research and a broad knowledge of other studies of the challenges facing women who are forced from their homes and homelands by conflict, this book offers in-depth understanding and problem-solving ideas. Derived from a project to advise U.N. agencies, it speaks to a broad array of students, scholars, NGOs, policymakers, government officials, and international organizations.

  • Space and place after natural disasters and forced displacement

    12 December 2013

    Disasters are not natural. Natural events such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, etc. become disasters because of the fragile relations that exist between the natural, human and built environments. Sadly, major disasters will always occur in towns and cities in the developing world where resources are limited, people are vulnerable and needs are particularly great. The prevailing state of emergency challenges thoughtful and sustainable planning and construction. Yet it is possible, in theory and in practice, to construct them in a way that provides a sustainable environment and improved conditions for current and future generations. Rebuilding After Disasters emphasizes the role of the built environment in the re-establishment of lives and sustainable livelihoods after disasters. Expert contributors explain the principal challenges facing professionals and practitioners in the building industry. This book will be of great value to decision makers, students and researchers in the fields of architecture, social sciences, engineering, planning, geography, and disaster recovery.

  • The role of legal and normative frameworks for the protection of environmentally displaced people

    12 December 2013

    Gradual and sudden environmental changes are resulting in substantial human movement and displacement, and the scale of such flows, both internal and cross-border, is expected to rise with unprecedented impacts on lives and livelihoods. Despite the potential challenge, there has been a lack of strategic thinking about this policy area partly due to a lack of data and empirical research on this topic. Adequately planning for and managing environmentallyinduced migration will be critical for human security. The papers in this volume were first presented at the Research Workshop on Migration and the Environment: Developing a Global Research Agenda held in Munich, Germany in April 2008. One of the key objectives on the Munich workshop was to address the need for more sound empirical research and identify priority areas of research for policy makers in the field of migration and the environment.

  • Introduction: Bedouin in Lebanon: Migration, Settlement, Health Care and Policy

    17 December 2013

    The populations of the Middle East have experienced particularly rapid socio-economic change over the past 40 years, due largely to the consolidation of the nation-state after the break-up of the Ottoman Empire at the close of WWI. The basic social, political and cultural rights of the pastoral populations (the Bedouin) of this region have been largely ignored, however, in part due to their remoteness and inaccessibility, but also because of the very fact of their mobility and physical marginality. With a few exceptions - such as Jordan and Saudi Arabia - cultural differences between the mobile Bedouin and the settled urban and agrarian populations have translated over time into development of discriminated minorities. The Bedouin way of life has come to be regarded as backward and primitive; in some places their very authenticity as part of the nation-state has been questioned as they fail to ‘Modernise’ at the same pace as surrounding populations. Thus in Lebanon the majority of Bedouin are ‘stateless’ without papers and live beyond the ‘boundaries’ of government services. Their mobile way of life is largely a thing of the past, but their sense of tribal belonging remains strong. Their desire for nationality papers reflects a wish to end their marginalisation and statelessness and be able to access government services.

  • Caring at a distance: (im)partiality, moral motivation and the ethics of representation – asylum and the principle of proximity

    17 December 2013

    Article 1 of the 1951 Geneva Convention furnishes a common and universal deŽfinition applicable to all refugees irrespective of their state of origin. However, I will argue that international refugee law—or at least its key principle, the principle of non-refoulement—introduces a morally arbitrary criterion for determining the responsibilities of states: a refugee’s proximity to an international boundary. The role of this criterion, moreover, is one factor in explaining why the current refugee regime is in crisis. Acknowledging the desirability of moving towards a less partial international system, I will outline some of the difficulties associated with creating an international system where all refugees matter to us and matter equally.

  • The state of asylum: democratisation, judicialisation and the evolution of refugee policy in Europe

    17 December 2013

    In this paper, Dr Gibney examines the relationship between increasing government restrictiveness towards asylum seekers and the growing entanglement of states in human rights law that restrains their activities. The argument he makes about the relationship between the two applies best to European states, encumbered by European and EU human rights legislation, especially after the Treaty of Amsterdam. However, much of this paper is of broader relevance to other liberal democratic states, and the examples he uses draw freely from non-European countries.

  • The state of asylum: democratization, judicialisation and the evolution of refugee policy (In: The Refugee Convention 50 years on: Globalisation and International Law)

    17 December 2013

    In this paper, Dr Gibney examines the relationship between increasing government restrictiveness towards asylum seekers and the growing entanglement of states in human rights law that restrains their activities. The argument he makes about the relationship between the two applies best to European states, encumbered by European and EU human rights legislation, especially after the Treaty of Amsterdam. However, much of this paper is of broader relevance to other liberal democratic states, and the examples he uses draw freely from non-European countries.

  • Asylum policy in the West: past trends, future possibilities

    17 December 2013

    This article examines the policy responses of Western countries in the realm of asylum. The authors begin by explaining the reasons why the asylum issue has made its way up the political agendas of liberal democratic countries in recent years. While applications for asylum have risen in the last two decades, we also highlight the way rights-based constraints and financial costs have contributed to controversy around the issue. The authors then examine in detail the major policy responses of states to asylum, grouping them into four main categories: measures aiming to prevent access to state territory, measures to deter arrivals, measures to limit stay, and measures to manage arrival. Moving then to explore the efficacy of these measures, the authors consider the utility of policy making from the viewpoints of states, asylum seekers and refugees, and international society. The article concludes with the presentation of four new directions in which policies could move in order better to square the professed interests of Western states with the needs of refugees for protection.

  • The Social, Political and Historical Contours of Deportation

    17 December 2013

    In recent years states across the world have boosted their legal and institutional capacity to deport noncitizens residing on their territory, including failed asylum seekers, “illegal” migrants, and convicted criminals. Scholars have analyzed this development primarily through the lens of immigration control. Deportation has been viewed as one amongst a range of measures designed to control entrance, distinguished primarily by the fact that it is exercised inside the territory of the state. But deportation also has broader social and political effects. It provides a powerful way through which the state reminds noncitizens that their presence in the polity is contingent upon acceptable behavior. Furthermore, in liberal democratic states immunity from deportation is one of the key privileges that citizens enjoy that distinguishes them from permanent residents. This book examines the historical, institutional and social dimensions of the relationship between deportation and citizenship in liberal democracies. Contributions also include analysis of the formal and informal functions of administrative immigration detention, and the role of the European Parliament in the area of irregular immigration and borders. The book also develops an analytical framework that identifies and critically appraises grassroots and sub national responses to migration policy in liberal democratic societies, and considers how groups form after deportation and the employment of citizenship in this particular context, making it of interest to scholars and international policy makers alike.